India Tamils Uncategorized

Pallavas(including Bodhi Dharman of Ezham Arivu) are not Tamils.

Augustus Coin found in the Pudukottai Hoard India
Image via Wikipedia

The much hyped Tamil filmEzham Arivu‘ talks about a Pallava Prince,Bodhi Dharman, who goes to China,teaches them martial arts and indigenous medicine and he is revered as a God in the Shaolin Temple in China.

In the euphoria surrounding the legend people do not seem to have bothered to check History.

Pallavas are an off shoot of Andhra Dynasty.

Simha Vishnu of the Dynasty founded the Pallava Kingdom in Tamil Nadu with Kanchipuram as his Capital.

To claim others success as one’s own is reprehensible whether it is by an individual or by an ethnic community.

There are innumerous  instances of facts where people of Tamil origin scaled great heights and set a standard for the world to follow.

In fact the Ramayana and the Mahabharata speaks highly of the great King Udiyan Chralaathan, also called ‘Perunchotru Udiyan’ for he fed both the Pandava and Kaurava Armies during the Mahabharata war.

These Epics also speak of the Chola and Pandya Kings and Arjuna is reported to have married a Pandya princess.

They also speak of the wealth and culture of Tamils.

‘Dravida’ is a name ascribed to Tamil people who were inhabitants of the area south of the Vindhyaas, extending up to  and including Australia.

Sage Viswamitra banished his sons away to this area, thinking that this area was inhabited by barbarians.

His sons and their progeny found this place to be far superior in Culture than Vedic culture and hence they combined the best of the Vedas and practices of the Tamils and evolved a compendium to be followed by people who live South of Vindhyaas.

This is ‘Aapasthamba Sutra’ which is followed by Brahmins even today.( Aapasthamba compiled it)

We have Sangam Literature and Thirukkural, among many other things,

To bask in false glory does not add lustre to Tamils or Tamil language


  Google Books.

The Pallavas

By Gabriel Jouveau-Dubreuil

The Pallava dynasty(Tamil: பல்லவர்) was a dynasty of South India which ruled the northern Tamil Nadu region and the southern Andhra Pradeshregion with their capital at Kanchipuram. They had established themselves as a notable rising power in the region between 275–350 AD.

After a careful study of Pallava genealogy with all the available material, of no less than 45 inscriptions, Rev H Heras put forth the theory that there was an unbroken line of Pallava kings, twenty-four of them in number, who originally ruled at some city of the Telugu country, possibly at Dasanapura, which the Darsi copper plates state as their adhisthana.[1] Dasanapura has been identified as Darsi, in Nellore district.[2][3] The Pallavas were at first a Tamil power.[4] The earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas were found in the districts of BellaryGuntur and Nellore.[5]

The Pallavas captured Kanchipuram from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchipuram figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas. The Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchipuram in the mid-4th century AD, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchipuram in the mid-6th century, possibly in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as “the lion of the earth”. Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchipuram till the 9th century AD, with the last king having been Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.

References to Tamils in Mahabharat.

I have selected the version of “Mahabharatha” translated into English Prose by “Mr Kisari Mohan Ganguli” from the original Sanskrit Text of Sage Viysa, and published by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi, India, from which the following have been extracted.


[1] “…….Dhritarashtra ( said, ‘Hear O Sanjaya the celestial feats of Vasudeva feats that Govinda achieved and the like of which no otheer person hath ever been able to achieve……The mighty Krishna also slew the valiant king of Chedis…….all these he vanquished in battle. The Avantis……the Cholas, the Pandyas……as also Sakas, and the Yavanas with followers were all vanquished by him ……..’



From the above it is noted that Lord Krishna defeated the Cholas and Pandyas in a battle prior to Baratha war .

[2] “……..When that host was being thus struck and slain by heroic warriors, the Parthas headed by Vrikodara advance against us. They consisted of Dhrishtayumna and Sikhandin, and the five sons of Draupadi, and the Prabhadrakes, and Satyaki, and Chekitana with the Dravida forces, and the Pandyas, the Cholas, and the Keralas, surrounded by a mighty array, all possessed of broad chests, long arms, tall statures an large eyes. Decked with ornaments, possessed of red teeth, endued with the prowess of infuriate elephants, attired in robes of diverse colours, smeared with powere scents, armed with swords and nooses, capable of restraining mightty elephants, companions in death, and never eserting one other, equipped with quivers, bearing bows adorne with long locks, an agreeable in speech were the combatants of the infantry files led by Sayaki, belonging to Andhra tribe, retinue with fierce forms and great energy. Other brave warriors such as the Chedis, the Panchalas, the Kaikayas, the Karushas, the Kosalas, the Kanchis, and the Maghadhas also rushed forward……..”


<u>Observation: </u>

From the above it is very clear Pandyas, Cholas, Keralas who were the Cheras, the Kanchis undoubtedly the Thondaimandala kings whose capital was at Kanchi. all fought on the side of the Pandavas. The above also describes of the warriors from the Tamil countries, their forces, valour, and armoury.

[3] “…….I behold the Ganga, the Satudru, the Sita, the Yamuna, and the Kausiki, the Charmanwati, the Vetravati, the Chandrabaga, the Saraswati, the Sindhu, the Vipasa, and the Godavari, the Vaswokasara, the Nalini and the Narmada, the Tamara, and the Venna also of delightful current and sacred waters, the Suvenna, the Krishna-venna, the Irama,and the Mahanadi, the Vitasti, O great king and that large river Cavery, the one also O tiger ! among men the Visalya and the Kimpuna also……”


<u>Observation: </u>

From the above it is noted that in the days of Mahabaratha the river Cavery river would have been very wide with more flow of water as the pronoun “large river” is only used to river Cavery, when many of the other rivers of India was being referred simply as rivers in Mahabaratha.

[4] “Markandeya said `O bull of the Bharata race even Rama suffered unparalled misery, for the evil minded Ravana king of Rakshasas, having recourse to deceit and overpowering the vulture Jatayu forcibly carried away his wife Sita from his asylum in the woods. Indeed Rama with the help of Sugriva brought her back, constructing a bridge across the sea, and consuming Lanka with his keen-edged arrows……..”

Tamil is pre-sanskritic.

The smile of Murugan on Tamil Literature of South India.

By Kamil Zvelebil

The Culture Of India.

By Educational Britannica Educational


  1. Rajus ( the Telugu speaking Kshatriyas ) claim that they are direct descendants of these clans
    a) PARICHEDIS ( Guhila , Vishnukundin Clan ) – Their Gothra ‘Vashishta’
    b) KOTA/ DHARANI KOTA ( Kubja Vishnuvardhana , Eastern Chalukya Clan )
    Their Gothra ‘Dhananjaya’
    c) KAKATI/KAKATIYA ( Karikala Chola, Kakati Prola Raju Clan) – Their Gothra ‘Kashyapa’
    d) VARNATA ( Aditya chola, Varnata Rajendra Chola/ Rajendra Choda Clan) – Their Gothra ‘Koundinyasa ‘
    Information available on this topic in Telugu book ” Andhra Samsthanamulu – Sahitya Poshana” published by Andhra University. This book was published form of Ph.D thesis submitted by Dr. Thoomati Donappa (Former Vice Chancellor of Telugu University).
    Another Telugu language book ‘ KSHATRIYANVAYAMANJUSHA’ by Sri. Duvvuri Jagannadha Sharma.
    The Telugu Kshatriyas (Rajus) have Rishi Gothras, Rishi Pravaras and Raja Pravaras.
    Rishi Pravara indicates to which Rishi ( Sage) disciples they have been.
    Raja Pravara indicates to which Royal Race or lineage they belong.
    At Rajus’ ceremonies the Brahmins and Bhatrajus/Bhattus ( Bards / Minstrels ) recite their Rishi and Raja Pravaras.

    RAJU ( Telugu Kshatriya ) ZAMINDARIS / ESTSATES :
    • Charmahal / Mogalthur : Kalidindi ( Koundinya Gothra)
    • Golugonda : Bhupathiraju clan ( Dhananjaya Gothra)
    • Kota Uratla-Thangedu ( East Godavari) : Saagi / Sagi ( Vashishta Gothra)
    • Ongole : Mandapati ( Kashyapa Gothra)
    • Padmanabham : Saagi/ Sagi clan (Vashishta Gothra)
    • Peddapuram : Vatsavayi / Vatsavaya ( Vashishta Gothra)
    • Rajamundry : Pusapati /Poospati (Vashishta Gothra)
    • Ramachandrapuram ( Kota Ramachandra Puram) : Kakarlapudi ( Vashishta Gothra)
    • Tanuku ( West Godavari) : Uppalapati ( Kasyapa gothra ),
    but later this zamindari was trasferred to Mullapudi ( Kamma caste) family.
    • TUNI , East Godavari : Dantuluri ( Dhananjaya Gothra)
    • Vizianagaram : Pusapati / Poosapati ( Vashishta Gothra)
    • Thettu ( Nellore district) : Vezendla/ Vejella ( Vashishta Gothra)
    • Thoyyeru ,Koppuram : Nallaparaju ( Dhananjaya gothra)
    And others like Moida ( Penumatsa, Dhananjaya Gothra),Karvetinagar ( Chittoor District near Tirupati), Owk ( Cuddapah Dist.), Anegondi ( Karnataka) ……… and many more.


  2., Pallavas are non-Tamils , but they using Tamil and Sanskrit only in TN. Bodhidharma learner martial arts from Tamil ethnics.
    Originally his Martial arts was founded by Trinity kings of Tamizhnadu.
    Cheras, Cholas and Pandiyas are originally Tamils. That’s enough.
    Cheras are ruled Keralam. But they aren’t Malayalees. Originally Malayalam also Tamil. Malayalees speaking Sanskrit influenced Tamil.
    Cholas are Originally Tamilians. Some peoples claims cholas are originally Telugu. But First chola appearsed in Tamilnadu. In Kumari kandam period there is no Telugu in the world.
    At the time Pandiyas ruled Kumari nadu. First Sangam also helded in Kumari kandam. Kumari kandam wasn’t Lemuria.


  3. I find nothing irrational about your argument, but to see that most of them trash talking on your article is hilarious.


  4. i want say that all south languages are derived from tamil ..tamil language was origined from limuria before 20000 years ago that is the birth place of tamil…Indian government approved that tamil is the most ancient language of india …we have great literature like thirukural which cannot be written by no one in world except a tamilian it is translated and studied in all countries and in all states of india also we have great architecture skills like chithambram temple thajnai periya kovil which say about our pride …if you research you can find the truth .recently Egypt and Thailand hav found tamil sculpture in their country say about our ancient travelers have done business on those days…we Dont live in false stories tamil is our identity we are proud to say as tamilian more than a indian…tamil is on 14 place of worlds highly spoken language were all our indian languages stands after 25 …


    1. I have written articles on the aspects you have written about.Please check under Tamils in the site or Google Tamil/Tamils ramanan50.What irrittaes is the arrogance and condescending attitude ofsome Tamil fanatics towards other Langauges.That’s Tamils undoing.My mother tonge is Tamil.Regds


      1. Sir please have a Look at my answer for who were Cholas:
        Anyway it’s informative that you’ve included Mahabharata mentions. Can I use it for other purposes? Its really sad to see the world ignores the Tamil caste Vanniyar or Palli. Its really said because the descent of Chola and Pallavas are living in Tamil Nadu but Ignored. And some shaming Tamil caste Vanniyar or Vanniyar kula Kshatriyar in Tamil Nadu or Agni kula Kshatriyar in Andhra or Sambu kula Kshatriyar in Mysore using Palli or பள்ளி but Pallipedam or Palli kattil itself refers to Kings throne.
        All I have included in my answer please refer.


  5. Pallavas may not be a complete tamil or telugu or any south indian races. They may be belong to Ancient naga people. pallavas may be a mixed dynasty of naga and chola.


  6. really if you read the history with proper evidences tamilians were never been kings.all were telugus and kannadagas.10000 (ten thousand year old temple ankgorewat temple built by telugu kings and kannada kings




  7. Pallavas(Kurubas kannada Yadavas) are kannada dynasty they are offshot of Chutu shatakarnis. Please learn some real history. They are plenty of kannada speaking kurubas in krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Hosur, Comibatore(Kongu Nadu) in TN. So called Tamils have no interest in learning true history, rather than want to live in illusion and fantasy stories and spread lies but you can not change the truth. The Pandyas are Alupas (of Coastal Karnataka), the chera are namboothri brahmins of kerala, the cholas are telegu even the Mudiraja people are telegu. Please educate yourself.


    1. Where are the references to Kannada Speaking kings in the Ithihasa?
      Please do not make a Hindu religious site as a platform for Linguistic war.If you have information with authentic links I will be happy o publish them .


  8. I’m sorry about that Ramadan. I pity you! I’m a proud family and I accept u r fa the that pallavas are not tamils


  9. Neelakantan says:

    than say who is raja raja cholan and pandyar many of kings are tamilans ruled in historical period in india ok. no one can dine this truth and also dont make comments on tamilians ,tamilans alway greatest pepole in the world , i think u r not a tamillian by asking has a above question !!!!!!!!!!!! i am waiting rply 4 u


  10. Hi reviewers,
    History is important but fact no one can judge what happened in AD’s It might be partial assumption or it might be partial fact. don’t get struck up with those things. Whether Pallavas are tamil or Marathi or telegu or kanadam ,,,,,,,, not matter. What they have done for our country what they thought us…. that is matter… dont get carry forward by language or caste etc., Whether we can able to judge total history in few lines mentioned in poems no.. that is only reference
    in present scenario each politician has their own channel in which new is broadcast.. not necessary all are true.. they are partially true and each will have its own controversy statement comparing one with each other.. so just listen to it as part of history not a total history.. this might be right or wrong this not going become syllabus for school children s


    1. True.
      The post was written to point out that taking credit for what is not yours is not decent.
      As things stand Indian History is distorted enough not to warrant further misinformation by the Dravidian parties, who seem to think, for their political purposes ,that Tamil is the only language that is rich and Tamil kings are the best.


      1. All south indian languages are derived from tamil .tamil is mother of world languages the truth will understanded by world language expert’s here we fight we are all one ethnic group people .and we live 60 or 80 or 100 years did you thing you are the one to protect all this language glory never the languages has the glory already we split it and fight for it. If you born in tamil family in next birth i am dam sure you will wonder richness of tamil language


  11. Hi Ramanan,
    Im not sure whether Pallavas are telugus, but they endorsed Sanskrit & Praskrit (Due to Jain influence). There are mixture of Tamil & Telugus plates available during their region which confuses everybody whehte they may or may not be Tamil or Telgus. But i sugest you to look up on Kalingathu Parani written by Jayakondar where the Poet say clearly says that during the Kulothunga Cholan Rule, his main General is a Pallava Prince called Karunakara Tondaiman. Who lead a Chola Army and battled & won against Kalinga Desam. And Even Kambar mentioned the same in Selai Ezupathu Poem, where he even descirbes his kulam and how Karanakaran is good in Archery. (Selai means Vil – Archer).



    1. Right.
      I read the Kalingathu Parani especially for lines like ‘paar peruththao padai siruuththatho’
      What is regtrettable is the twisting of History by calling even people who may not be Tamils(in fact whoa Tamil is a great question) as Tamils when it is not warranted.


  12. Racist basted. . Ths is the problem why the whole world dont recognised indians. We Indians never United. We dont need other race or other countries to talk bad abt indian. People like u it self will tarnish us who cares ur what ever casta, other race dnt knw our casta, they recognise Us as indian idiot. Fuck ur self.


  13. Bhodidharman religion might be different but he is basically From Tamil.. He is son of the king Sugandan,who also known as Simhavarman. All the early Pallava royal inscriptions are either in Tamil Grandha, Prakrit or in Sanskrit. There are many Telugu inscription found but still Tamil is considered the official languages of the dynasty while the official script was Pallava grantha.[13] This is in contrast to the vatteluttu script and Tamil language used in contemporary memorial stones (virakal). As per Archiologist Pallavas has two parts. Jaina Kanchi had jainism with Prakrit, Sankrit and Tamil as the base language. And before Pallavas it is Kalabrahas who dominated the area. There are many inscriptions that are found in Tamil, Telugu, Sanskrit, Prakrit major of them are in Tamil. Pallavas also cntributed Telugu Scripts. It doesn’t mean that they are telugu kings. The Pallavas were an offshoot of the Cholas[2]. Thus the dynasty is named Pallava derived from the Sanskrit word Pallavam means bud, branch refers to the separate branch of dynasty founded by the Karikala Chola’s son Aa-thondaimaan Ilanthiraiyan in early 2nd century[2].
    This space is too small to speak about the evidence. The conclusion is, other people don’t want Tamils to get any fame. But the art, science, and technology are advanced and that is been proved from time to time. It is proved that the Tamil dynasty are longest rulers in India.
    South indian inscription Volume 12 The Early Pallavas of Kánchípura” published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland which relates with the inscription related with Pallavs.
    History, Vol.XXIV, Parts 1 & 2 (April & August 1945) Serial Nos. 70 & 71, p.11-16; Ananda Press
    Nilakanta Sastri, K.A (2002) [1955]. A History of South India. New Delhi: OUP.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. The Pallava Dynasty’s origin is controversial.
      However the names of the Pallava Kings,Simha Vishnu,Mahendra varman,Narasima Varman are not Tamil and the Pallava King Mahendravarman wrote ‘Maththavilasa parkatanam in Sanskrit.
      However Nandi Varman wrote Nandhik Kalambakam, a great poem of beauty and he has filled each verse with ‘Aram’ after recting which the ‘Pandal caught fire and he also died in the last Pandal
      Suffice it would have been to state that Bodhi Dharman lived and ruled from kanchipuram with out bringing in Tamils as the definition of Tamils is to be arrived at conclusively.
      If it is by birth, many of the Tamil kings may not qualify.
      What is not needed is unnecessary chauvinism and rhetoric and the least service we can do to Tamil is to teach our children to speak Tamil, call mother as’Amma and father as Appa rather than Mummy.Daddy.
      Instead of basking in the glory of our ancestors,let us create class Tamil literature instead of whining that Tamil is not recognised.
      I had provided a wiki Link in the blog,

      It states’The Pallava dynasty(Tamil: பல்லவர்) was a Tamil dynasty which ruled the northern Tamil Nadu region and the southern Andhra Pradesh region with their capital at Kanchipuram. They had established themselves as a notable rising power in the region between 275–350 AD.
      After a careful study of Pallava genealogy with all the available material, of no less than 45 inscriptions, Rev H Heras put forth the theory that there was an unbroken line of Pallava kings, twenty-four of them in number, who originally ruled at some city of the Telugu country, possibly at Dasanapura, which the Darsi copper plates state as their adhisthana.[1] Dasanapura has been identified as Darsi, in Nellore district.[2][3] The Pallavas were at first a Tamil power.[4] The earliest inscriptions of the Pallavas were found in the districts of Bellary, Guntur and Nellore.[5]
      The Pallavas captured Kanchipuram from the Cholas as recorded in the Velurpalaiyam plates, around the reign of the fifth king of the Pallava line Kumaravishnu I. Thereafter Kanchipuram figures in inscriptions as the capital of the Pallavas. The Cholas drove the Pallavas away from Kanchipuram in the mid-4th century AD, in the reign of Vishugopa, the tenth king of the Pallava line. The Pallavas re-captured Kanchipuram in the mid-6th century, possibly in the reign of Simhavishnu, the fourteenth king of the Pallava line, whom the Kasakudi plates state as “the lion of the earth”. Thereafter the Pallavas held on to Kanchipuram till the 9th century AD, with the last king having been Vijaya-Nripatungavarman.[1]
      The royal custom of using a series of descriptive honorific titles, birudas, was particularly prevalent among the Pallavas. The birudas of Mahendravarman I are in Sanskrit, Tamil and Telugu. The Telugu birudas show that his involvement with the Andhra region continued to be strong at the time he was creating his cave-temples in the Tamil region.[6] The suffix “Malla” was used by the Pallava rulers.[6] Mahendravarman I used the biruda, Satrumalla, “a warrior who overthrows his enemies”, and his grandson Paramesvara I was called Ekamalla “the sole warrior or wrestler”. Pallavas kings, persumably exalted ones, were known by their title, Mahamalla or the “great wrestler”.[7]…


      Telugu traditions know of a certain Trilochana Pallava as the earliest Telugu King, which is confirmed by later inscriptions .[5] Trilochana Pallava was killed by a Chalukya King near Mudivemu, Cuddapah District. A Buddhist story describes Kala the Nagaraja, resembling the Pallava Kalabhartar as a king of the region near Krishna district. The Pallava Bogga may be identified with the kingdom of Kala in Andhra which had close and early maritime and cultural relations with Ceylon.[5] Rev Heras also identified King Bappa with Kalabhartar (aka Kalabhartri), “the head jewel of the family”, whom Rev Heras proposes as the founder of the dynasty, detecting in the references to Bappa in the Hirahadagalli and Uruvapalli plates, “the flavour of antiquity and veneration which always surround the memory of the founder of a dynasty”.[1]
      The earliest Tamil literature which throws light on a region associated with the Pallavas is the Ahananuru, which locates the elder Tiriyan in Gudur, Nellore district, with a kingdom extending to Tirupati or Thiruvengadam.[10] This Tiriayan is called the elder in order to distinguish him from the younger Tiraiyan whose capital was Kanchipuram.[11][10] The Sangam work, Perumbanarruppatai, traces the line of the younger Tiriyan (aka Ilam Tiriyan) to the Solar dynasty of Ikshvakus, while the later Tamil commentators identify him as the illegitimate child of a Chola king and a Naga princess.[10]
      Sangam literature, that is, the Manimekhalai describe the liaison of Princess Pilli Valai of Nāka Nadu with King Killivalavan of Chola Nadu at Nainativu; out of which union was born Prince Tondai Ilandiraiyan. Thus, Sangam literature posits Ilam Tiriyan as a Chola, not a Pallava. As per popular belief, it is suggested that Pallavas were an off-shoot or branch of the Cholas. It is also claimed that the Sangam work Manimekhalai possibly alludes to their formation from an ancient Chola-Nāka alliance.
      The Velurpalaiyam plates, dated to 852 AD, does not mention the Cholas. Instead it credits the Naga liaison episode, and creation of the Pallava line, to a different Pallava king named Virakurcha, while preserving its legitimizing significance:[12]
      …from him (Aśvatthāman) in order (came) Pallava, the lord of the whole earth, whose fame was bewildering. Thence, came into existence the race of Pallavas… [including the son of Chūtapallava] Vīrakūrcha, of celebrated name, who simultaneously with (the hand of) the daughter of the chief of serpents grasped also the complete insignia of royalty and became famous.
      Historically, early relations between the Nagas and Pallavas became well established before the myth of Pallava’s birth to Ashwatthama took root.[5] A praśasti (literally “praise”), composed in 753 AD on the dynastic eulogy in the Kasakadi plates, by the Pallava Trivikrama, traces the Pallava lineage from creation through a series of mythic progenitors, then praises the dynasty in terms of two similes hinged together by triple use of the word avatara (“descent”), as below:[12]
      The Link you have quoted in your communication is marked as’needs citation’
      Thank you for detailed and painstaking comment and we need people like you to project views to hear the other side of the story.
      Tamil as we know of to day,after the Dravidian parties used it to gain power, has been wrongly quoted of glories that are not Tamils’ while suppressing correct information on Tamil and Tamil literature, with the result that the people of other states have come to regard Tamils as an upstart and are those who ridicule other people and other languages, which is not true as per Tamil Traditions.
      I would recommend you’Hindu manners and Customs and Ceremonies by A.J Dubois’ especially the last chapter to know the greatness of Tamil and Tamils- available in Google books.



        Liked by 1 person

      2. There is no point in taking note of these jokers.
        Please read my posts on Tamils, Hinduism to know what these people say and my replies to them.
        My name in Tamil sites is ‘Bangalore Brahmin Dog, whenever I write facts on Tamil/Tamils.


Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: