Worlds First Republic Malla Kingdom India 700 BC

History of India might seem to be disorganised ,but a careful and patient study will show that the history of India is an integrated one and Kingdoms were interrelated.

Mostly through marriages.

The difficulty in identifying the early history lies in the fact that the identification of these intricate relationships.

Once we identify this ,the task becomes easier.

While I was trying to fix the date of King Vikramaditya,I stumbled upon the History of Samudra Gupta,father of Chandra Gupta II,who is popularly known as Vikramaditya.

But,as it is the wont,western historians dismiss most of the facts associated with Vikramaditya Chandra Gupta as legends.

Facts seem to indicate otherwise.

Vikramaditya’s grandfather,Chandra Gupta I married a princess from Lichavi Kingdom .

(Samudra Gupta was the son of Chandra Gupta I).

Malla reference may be found in Lichaavis.

This Kingdom coexisted with the most ancient Kingdoms of India,that is the Mahajanapadas,the Sixteen Kingdoms of India,which is mentioned in the Vedas.

The astonishing fact is that it was a Republic.

The roots of Lichavis may be traced back to Nepal,Varanasi.

These places are venerated in Buddhist texts.

The date of Malla Kingdom is between 700 to 300 BC!

The Gupta emperor Chandragupta I married a Licchavi princess Kumaradevi and the legend Licchavayah is found along with a figure of goddess Lakshmi on the reverse of the Chandragupta I-Kumaradevi type gold coins of Samudragupta. In the Allahabad Pillarinscription of Samudragupta, he is described as the Licchavidauhitra (the grandson of the Licchavis from his mother’s side). These probably suggest Licchavi occupation of Magadha immediately before the rise of the imperial Guptas, although there is no direct evidence to prove it

Kautilya in his Arthaśāstra (ch. XI), describes the Licchavis as a tribal confederation (gaṇa sangha), whose leader uses the title of rājā(rājaśabdopajīvinah). A Buddhist text, the Mahāparinibbāna Suttanta refers them as Kshatriyas and one of the claimants of the relics of Buddha. They have claimed Kshatriya status themselves. According to the Dīgha Nikāya, the Licchavis were of the Vasiṣṭhagotra.Buhler assumes that, in the Manusmriti (X.22), the Licchavis are placed in the category of the Vratya Kshatriyas.

Buddhaghośa in his Paramatthajotikā, traced the origin of the Licchavis to Benaras. The date of the establishment of the Licchavi domination over the area consisting of present-day north Bihar and Terai region of Nepal is not known. By the time of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha this clan was already well settled in the area around their capital Vaiśālī. Buddhist tradition has preserved the names of a number of eminent Licchavis, which include prince Abhyaya, Oṭṭhaddha(Mahāli), generals, Sīha and Ajita, Dummukha and Sunakkhata. The Kalpasūtra of Bhadravāhu refers to the nine Licchavi gaṇarājas (chieftains) who along with the nine Malla gaṇarājas and the eighteen KāśīKośalagaṇarājas formed a league against Magadha. The leader of this alliance was Chetaka, whose sister Trishala was the mother of Mahavir)


Malla was an ancient Indian republic (Gaṇa sangha) that constituted one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms) of ancient India. The republic is notable for being the chosen death place of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.

Malla was one of the solasa (16) mahajanapadas of mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya. It was named after the ruling clan of the same name. The Mahabharata (VI.9.34) mentions the territory as the Mallarashtra (Malla state). The Malla mahajanapada was situated north of Magadha. It was a small mahajanapada. The mahajanapada was divided into two main parts and the river Kakuttha (present day Kuku) was probably the dividing line. The capital of these two parts were Kusavati(modern Kasia near Gorakhpur) and Pava, modern Fazilnagar, 12 miles from Kasia.


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