These are two concepts that are yet to be clearly understood or defined.
What we now have of them are descriptions at the most in various forms, some of them in the form of Formulae.
To understand what time is let us look at two examples.
1.Let us imagine that we are travelling to Bangalore from Chennai by car.
For easy calculations let us assume the distance between them is 500 miles.
If we travel @ 500 miles per hour we shall reach Bangalore from Chennai.
If the speed is 1000 miles, we shall reach in half an hour.
If it is 2000 miles we will reach in fifteen minutes.
If it is 8 000 miles, we will reach in 3.75 minutes.
At this rate at a particular speed we shall be reaching Bangalore before we left Bangalore.
At the rate of 128000 miles per hour we would reach Bangalore in. 0039 seconds!
If we extend this logic, we would at a point of speed will be reaching Bangalore before we leave/left Chennai!
That is Time runs backwards.
Einstein, unable to solve the issue in his earlier years declared that nothing can travel faster than Light and if it does, it is not Matter.
Later he revised his views.
But notwithstanding this explanation the question remains.
Let us imagine that an object has to Travel from point A to B.
Before reaching B from point A you should cross half the distance between A and B.
Let’s call it C.
To reach from A to C one should pass half the distance between A and C
Call it D.
To reach from A to C, you have to cross half the distance from A and D.
Now remember, Space is infinitely Divisible.
So you shall be dividing the Space between A and B INFINITELY.
This means you will be traveling from A to B INFINITELY.
This means Motion or in this case Travel is Infinite.
IT other words you will never reach Bangalore.
This impasse was solved by Sage Bharatwaja in his work Amritbhoshini.
He distinguishes betwee two classes of Time.
Absolute and Relative.
Absolute Time belongs to a higher plane.
That of Reality where Time is Absolute.
Time as Vedas describe is an aspect of Brahman, the Reality.
The other concept of Time is what we use daily.
IT is Relative Time.
This Time is used when the Nirguna , Beyond Attributes, evolved into Saguna Brahman, the world of Names and Forms.
This is what Bharatwaja says.
Vachya, the Absolute Time, coexistant with Brahman, the Reality and
Avachar, Relative Time of Saguna Brahman, the world of Names and Forms.
This has been stated by him in his work Amshu Bodhini.
This is a book of Aphorisms, Sutra.
The same Thought was expressed by Sage Parashurama in his work Antha Kausthuba Sastra.
I have been able to find a list on this topic along with higher mathematics.
They are twenty four in number.
Shall be writing on these books and the Sutra with explanation.
Now let’s see What Newton, and Einstein have to say on Absolute Time.
Originally introduced by Sir Isaac Newton in Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, the concepts of absolute time and space provided a theoretical foundation that facilitated Newtonian mechanics. According to Newton, absolute time and space respectively are independent aspects of objective reality:
Absolute, true and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature flows equably without regard to anything external, and by another name is called duration: relative, apparent and common time, is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of duration by the means of motion, which is commonly used instead of true time …
According to Newton, absolute time exists independently of any perceiver and progresses at a consistent pace throughout the universe. Unlike relative time, Newton believed absolute time was imperceptible and could only be understood mathematically. According to Newton, humans are only capable of perceiving relative time, which is a measurement of perceivable objects in motion (like the Moon or Sun). From these movements, we infer the passage of time.
Absolute space, in its own nature, without regard to anything external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative space is some movable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces; which our senses determine by its position to bodies: and which is vulgarly taken for immovable space … Absolute motion is the translation of a body from one absolute place into another: and relative motion, the translation from one relative place into another …
— Isaac Newton
Quoted below from his later papers, Einstein identified the term aether with “properties of space”, a terminology that is not widely used. Einstein stated that in general relativity the “aether” is not absolute anymore, as the geodesic and therefore the structure of spacetime depends on the presence of matter.
To deny the ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical qualities whatever. The fundamental facts of mechanics do not harmonize with this view. For the mechanical behaviour of a corporeal system hovering freely in empty space depends not only on relative positions (distances) and relative velocities, but also on its state of rotation, which physically may be taken as a characteristic not appertaining to the system in itself. In order to be able to look upon the rotation of the system, at least formally, as something real, Newton objectivises space. Since he classes his absolute space together with real things, for him rotation relative to an absolute space is also something real. Newton might no less well have called his absolute space “Ether”; what is essential is merely that besides observable objects, another thing, which is not perceptible, must be looked upon as real, to enable acceleration or rotation to be looked upon as something real.
— Albert Einstein, Ether and the Theory of Relativity (1920)’
Reference and Citation.
# Explanation of the Featured Image.
Two spheres orbiting around an axis. The spheres are distant enough for their effects on each other to be ignored, and they are held together by a rope. The rope is under tension if the bodies are rotating relative to absolute space according to Newton, or because they rotate relative to the universe itself according to Mach, or because they rotate relative to local geodesics according to general relativity.