Pradosha is the Time when Lord Shiva is ecstatic.
The Prayers addressed to Shiva through His Mount Rishaba, Bull brings immediate relief.
Image credit. http://www.lotus sculpture.com
‘Pradosha is indicative of day names in the calendar. Etymology of Pradosha – Pradosha is the son of Kalpa and Dosha. He had two brothers namely Nishita and Vyustha. The three names mean beginning, middle and end of night The days from new moon day to full moon day is called “Sukla Paksha” and days from every full moon day to new moon day is called “Krishna paksha”. During every month and during every paksha, the point of time when triyodashi (13th day of the fortnight) meets the end of dwadasi (12th day of fortnight) is called Pradosha During pradosha, Nandi (the sacred bull of Shiva) in all the Shiva temples in South India is worshipped. The festival idol of Shiva with Parvathi in a seated pose on Nandi is taken as a procession in the temple complex.
The etymology , in my opinion may reveal more.
I am researching into this for Kalpa is associtaed with Time and Shiva is The Lord of Time.
Explanation ,Names and Fruits of the Pradosha Vrata.
Pradosha Kaalam is that period of time during which Lord Shiva is known to have evolved out of His unsteady state (due to the effect of the poison he had consumed) and performing Ananda Thandava on top of his Rishabha Vahana (Sacred Nandi Bull). During this pradosha time, Lord Shiva is known to be in the most ecstatic of moods as he has been successful in saving mankind from the ill effects of the Poison ‘hala’. His Ananda Thandava blesses all the three worlds and the Devathas in turn pray to him.
Lord Shiva is known to be very generous giving away Vardhan (boons), although, he would test his devotees to the core. To those devotees who pray to him during the Pradosha Kaalam, duly observing fast, performing puja, chanting of Rudram, visiting sacred places of interest, He brings prosperity and happiness in life.
Pradosha Kalam falls on the 13th lunar day of Trayodashee during the shukla and krishna pakshas, waxing and waning fortnights in the Hindu calendar months. If, the period between sunset to next sunrise is divided into 5 equal parts, the first part is called Pradosha Kalam and it denotes the end of day time and the beginning of night. This is also called the period of Asuras (Raaksha Neram). It is believed that each day of the week has different benefits during Pradosh time:’
‘The devas, celestial deities approached Shiva in the most propitious moments of pradosha to get relief from asuras – Danavas and Daityas.They ran around Kailasha, Siva’s abode hitherto on a triyodashi evening and was aided by Nandi, Shiva’s sacred bull. Shiva aided them in killing the asuras – the practise of worshipping Shiva on traiyodashi along with Nandi emerged and continues in Shiva temples. “Pradosha vrata” (vow) is performed on pradosham with sacred ritual steps following the tradition.
- Sunday (Bhaanu Vaara Pradosha)
- Peace to all (Mangalam to all)
- Monday (Indu Vaara Pradosha)
- Positive (perception) thinking
- Tuesday (Bhauma Vaara Pradosha)
- No Poverty (Prosperity to all)
- Wednesday (Saumya Vaara Pradosha)
- Blessings with progeny, Knowledge and education
- Thursday (Guru Vaara Pradosha)
- Divine blessings through the Pitru’s, all dangers will be eliminated
- Friday (Bhrgu Vaara Pradosha)
- Nullifying (negativeness) opposition
- Saturday (Sthira Vaara Pradosha)
- Elevation (promotion) getting back the lost wealth
Mahaa Pradosh Kalam comes yearly during the month of Maagh/Maashi (U’ma’ +’Shi’Va) before Mahaa Shiv Raatri. If the Mahaa Pradosha comes on Saturday, it is called Shani Mahaa Pradosha. Saturday is the day when Lord Shiva swallowed poison and this is called Shani (Sthira in Samskritam) Pradosha. It is categorized into three categories of importance depending upon the month on which Pradosha falls:
- Uttama Sthira Pradosha – Maximum power – The Sthira Pradosha that comes during the months of Chaitra, Vaishaakh, Aashaadh and Kaartik during the Growing Lunar Cycle (Shukla Paksha), i.e from New to Full moon period.
- Madhyama Sthira Pradosha – Normal power – The Sthira Pradosha that comes during the months of Chaitra, Vaishaakh, Aashaadh and Kaartik during Diminishing Lunar Cycle (Krishn Paksha), ie Full to New moon period.
- Adhama Sthira Pradosha – Minimum power – All the other Sthira Pradosha. The Pradosh that falls on any Saturday is called MahaA Pradosha (Sthira Pradosh).
Soma Sutra Pradhikshinam.
During Pradosha Kala, Lord Shiva is supposed to be very powerful and happy. Unlike normal days/times during Pradosha kalam, a special type of circumambulation calledSoma-sUtra-pradakshiNam is practiced in Shiva temples. The importance of Soma-sUtra-pradakshiNam is that the gomukhi (place where the water after anointing – abhiSheka tIrtam- would be flowing northwards out) is never crossed during circumambulation of the Lord. By doing this way of pradakshiNam, one does not step over this holy water. The following order of Circumambulation is practiced for a single turn:
1)RiShabham-ChaNdIchar-RiShabham-Gomukhi 2)RiShabham-ChaNdIchar-Gomukhi 3)RiShabham-ChaNdIchar-RiShabham- RiShabham.
Translation by Sri. P.R.Ramchander.
Kailasa shaila bhuvane thri jaga janithreem,
Gowreedha nivesye kanakanchitha rathna peete,
Nrutham vidhthu mabhi vanchithi Soolapanau,
Deva Pradosha samaye anubhajanthi sarve. 1
During the time of Pradosha,
The Lord who holds the trident,
Makes Goddess Gowri,
Who is the mother of all the three worlds,
Sit on a golden seat inlaid with precious gems,
And prepares to dance himself,
And all the devas sing his praise at this time.
Vagdevi drutha vallaakee sathamukho
venum dhadhan padmaja,
Sthallo nidhra karo ramaa bhagawathi,
Vishnu saandra mrudanga vaadana patur
devas samanthath sthithaa,
Sevanthe thamara pradosha samaye
devam mrudaaneepathim. 2
The goddess of Knowledge plays Veena,
The hundred faced Indra plays the flute,
The Brahma who was born in a lotus keeps time,
The Goddess Lakshmi starts to sing,
The God Vishnu plays the drum with ease,
And all the devas stand all round in service,
And pray Lord Shiva during the time of pradosha.
Gandarwa Yaksha patha goraga siddha saadhya.
Yeanyethi loka nilaya saha bhootha varga,
Prapthe pradosha samaye hara parswa samstha. 3
When the time of Pradosha arrives,
Gandarwas, Yakshas, birds, snakes, saints,
Vidhyadaras, devas, the celestial dancers, Bhoothas,
And all the beings in the three worlds,
Come and stand near The Lord Shiva.
Atha pradoshe shiva eka eva,
Poojyodhananye hari padmajadhya,
Thasmin mahese vidhinejyamane,
Sarve praseedanthi suradhi natha. 4
So at the time of Pradosha,
There is need to worship only Shiva,
Instead of Vishnu , Brahma and others,
For the proper worship of Lord Shiva then,
Would give the effect of worshipping all gods.
Lokanahooya sarvaan vividha damarukair gora samsara magnan,
Dathwaabheetham dayalu pranatha bhava haram kunchitham vaama bhaagam,
Uddruthyedham vimukherayanamithi karadarshayan prathyayartham,
Bibradwanhim sabhaayaam kalaathi natanam ya shivo na sa paayal. 5
Let us be protected by that dancing Shiva,
Who uses the various sounds of the shaking drum,
To call all those people drowned in the fearful life,
Who indicates protection to them using his right hand held down,
Who lifts his left leg capable of killing all sorrows,
To those who fall at his feet,
Who indicates the path of salvation by his left hand held up,
And who shows that all this is true by carrying fire in the other left hand,
Sathyam braveemi, paraloka hitham braveemi,
Saaram braveemi upanishadyadhyam braveemi,
Samsaramuthbanamasar vaapya jantho,
Saroyameeswarapadhamburuhasya seva. 6
I tell the truth,
I tell what is good for the other world,
I tell the views of the Upanishads,
For every insignificant animal that is born,
The only meaningful thing is the service to God.
Yenarchayanthi gireesam samaye pradoshe,
Ye na architham shivamapi pranamanthichanye,
Ethath kadhaam sruthi putair na pibanthi mooda,
Stheya janma subhavanthi naraa daridra. 7
He who does not worship Lord Shiva during Pradosha,
He who does not at least bow before him at that time,
He who does not at least listen to the story of Shiva at that time,
Is a foolish soul who would be always poor, birth after birth.
Ye vai pradosha samaye parameswarasya,
Kurvanthyananya mansangri saroja poojaam,
Nithya pravrudha thara puthra kalathra mithra,
Soubhagya sambadadhikastha ihaiva loke. 8
He who during the time of Pradosha, worships Lord Shiva,
With full concentration using lotus flowers,
Would forever along with his children, wife and friends,
Get all wealth and all luck in a very large measure.
* Based on the Malayalam translation of Chennas Krishnan Namboodhiri, Guruvayoo
॥ प्रदोषस्तोत्रम् ॥ श्री गणेशाय नमः । जय देव जगन्नाथ जय शङ्कर शाश्वत । जय सर्वसुराध्यक्ष जय सर्वसुरार्चित ॥ १॥ जय सर्वगुणातीत जय सर्ववरप्रद । जय नित्य निराधार जय विश्वम्भराव्यय ॥ २॥ जय विश्वैकवन्द्येश जय नागेन्द्रभूषण । जय गौरीपते शम्भो जय चन्द्रार्धशेखर ॥ ३॥ जय कोट्यर्कसङ्काश जयानन्तगुणाश्रय । जय भद्र विरूपाक्ष जयाचिन्त्य निरञ्जन ॥ ४॥ जय नाथ कृपासिन्धो जय भक्तार्तिभञ्जन । जय दुस्तरसंसारसागरोत्तारण प्रभो ॥ ५॥ प्रसीद मे महादेव संसारार्तस्य खिद्यतः । सर्वपापक्षयं कृत्वा रक्ष मां परमेश्वर ॥ ६॥ महादारिद्र्यमग्नस्य महापापहतस्य च । महाशोकनिविष्टस्य महारोगातुरस्य च ॥ ७॥ ऋणभारपरीतस्य दह्यमानस्य कर्मभिः । ग्रहैः प्रपीड्यमानस्य प्रसीद मम शङ्कर ॥ ८॥ दरिद्रः प्रार्थयेद्देवं प्रदोषे गिरिजापतिम् । अर्थाढ्यो वाऽथ राजा वा प्रार्थयेद्देवमीश्वरम् ॥ ९॥ दीर्घमायुः सदारोग्यं कोशवृद्धिर्बलोन्नतिः । ममास्तु नित्यमानन्दः प्रसादात्तव शङ्कर ॥ १०॥ शत्रवः सङ्क्षयं यान्तु प्रसीदन्तु मम प्रजाः । नश्यन्तु दस्यवो राष्ट्रे जनाः सन्तु निरापदः ॥ ११॥ दुर्भिक्षमरिसन्तापाः शमं यान्तु महीतले । सर्वसस्यसमृद्धिश्च भूयात्सुखमया दिशः ॥ १२॥ एवमाराधयेद्देवं पूजान्ते गिरिजापतिम् । ब्राह्मणान्भोजयेत् पश्चाद्दक्षिणाभिश्च पूजयेत् ॥ १३॥ सर्वपापक्षयकरी सर्वरोगनिवारणी । शिवपूजा मयाऽऽख्याता सर्वाभीष्टफलप्रदा ॥ १४॥ ॥ इति प्रदोषस्तोत्रं सम्पूर्णम् ॥ Citations and references. http://www.hindupedia.com/en/Pradosha_Kalam https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pradosha http://stotram.co.in/pradosha-stotram/