It is known that India is the Civilization that gave the world Zero and Infinity.

According to Indian Philosophy(most Indian Philosophers were Mathematicians like in the West, Descartes,Leibniz,), The Concept of Knowledge is Negative.

That is the absence of ignorance is Knowledge, unlike the Western Thought where Knowledge is a Positive concept.

Infinity is a Positive concept and Finity is a negative concept, the other side of Infinity is Finity.

Darkness is a Positive concept and the absence of darkness is Light.

Knowledge is not something one acquires from outside but from within by removing Ignorance.

Everything in Science is determined by Philosophy first and later it is passed onto Science.

Let’s peep into some aspects.

**Measurement Units in Ancient India**

The highest prefix used for raising 10 to a power in today’s maths is ‘D’ for 10 to a power of 30 (from Greek Deca). While the largest numbers the ancient Greeks and the Romans used were 10 to the power of 6, whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10 to the power of 53 with specific names as early as 5000 B.C. during the Vedic period.

1= **Ekam** =1, 10 was **Dashakam**, 100 was **Shatam** (10to the power of 2), 1000 was **Sahasram**(10 power of 3), 10000 was **Dashasahasram** (10 power of 4), 100000 was **Lakshaha** (10 power of 5), 1000000 was **Dashalakshaha** (10 power of 6), 10000000 was **Kotihi** (10 power of 7)……**Vibhutangamaa** (10 power of 51), **Tallaakshanam** (10 power of 53).

Measurement in Tamil Literature.

- 1 kuzhi(kuRRuzhi)= 6.66 millisecond-the time taken by the Pleiades stars(
*aRumin*) to glitter once. - 12(base 8 ) or 10 kuzhigaL= 1 miy= 66.6666 millisecond-the time taken by the young human eyes to flap once.
- 2 kaNNimaigaL= 1 kainodi= 0.125 second
- 2 kainodi= 1 maatthirai= 0.25 second
- 6(base 8 ) or 6 miygaL= 1 siRRuzhi(nodi)= 0.40 second-the time taken for a bubble (created by blowing air through a bamboo tube into a vessel 1 saaN high, full of water) to travel a distance of one saaN .
- 2 maatthiraigaL= 1 kuru= 0.50 second
- 2(base 8 ) or 2 nodigaL= 1 vinaadi= 0.80 second-the time for the adult human heart to beat once
- 2
^{1}⁄_{2}nodigaL= 2 kuru= 1 uyir= 1 second - 5 nodigaL= 2 uyir= 1 saNigam= 1/2 aNu= 2 seconds
- 12(base 8 ) or 10 nodigaL= 1 aNu= 4 seconds
- 6(base 8 ) or 6 aNukkaL= 12 saNigam= 1 thuLi= 1 naazhigai-vinaadi= 24 seconds
- 12(base 8 ) or 10 thuLigaL= 1 kaNam= 4 minutes
- 6(base 8 ) or 6 kaNangaL= 1 naazhigai= 24 minutes
- 12(base 8 ) or 10 naazhigaigaL= 4 saamam= 1 siRupozhuthu= 240 minutes= 4 hours
- 6(base 8 ) or 6 siRu-pozhuthugaL= 1 naaL(1 day)= 24 hours
- 7 naaTkaL= 1 kizhamai(1 week)
- 15 naaTkaL= 1 azhuvam(1 fortnight )
- 29.5 naaTkaL= 1 thingaL(1 lunar month)
- 2 thingaL= 1 perum-pozhuthu(1 season)
- 6 perum-pozhuthugaL= 1 AaNdu(1 year)
- 64 aaNdugaL= 1 vattam(1 cycle)
- 4096(=8^4) AaNdugaL= 1 Oozhi(1 epoch)

#### Area Measurement

- 1 Marakkal vaedaipadu (seeds required for planting rice) = 8 cents
- 12.5 Marakkal vaedaipadu = 100 cents (one acre)

Area calculation and Measurement Chart

- 1 hectare = 2 acre 47 cent
- 1 hectare = 10,000 sq.m.
- 1 acre = 0.405 hectare
- 1 acre = 4046.82 sq.m.
- 1 acre = 43,560 sq.ft.
- 1 acre = 100 cent = 4840 sq.gejam
- 1 cent = 435.6 sq.ft.
- 1 cent = 40.5 sq.m
- 1 ground = 222.96 sq.m. = 5.5 cent
- 1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.
- 1 kuli = 44 cent
- 1 kaani = 132 cent = 3 kuli
- 1 kaani = 1.32 acre
- 1 kaani = 57,499 sq.ft.
- 1 acre = 2.25 kuli
- 1 dismil = 1.5 cent
- 1 furlong = 660 feet = 220 kejam
- 1 kilometre = 5 furlong
- 1 link / chain = 0.66 foot = 7.92 inch
- 1 kejam = 3 feet
- 1 mile = 8 furlong
- 1 ares = 1076 sq.ft. = 2.47 cent
- 1 chain = 22 kejam
- 1 furlong = 10 chain
- 1 kejam = 0.9144 metre
- 1 township = 36 sq.mile
- 1 sq.mile = 640 acre.
- For more check,
- Source:
- http://mysteriesexplored.wordpress.com/2011/11/04/measurement-india-world-guru-of-mathematics-part-11/
- https://ramanan50.wordpress.com/2012/10/16/time-non-linear-theory-indian-thoughts-1/
- You may read more filed under Time,Astrophysics in my site.

###### Related Articles

- History of mathematics (math0la.wordpress.com)

## 4 responses to “Hinduism And Mathematics, Calculations,Measures”

one of the most comprehensive write-ups on the concept of time and measurement as per Indian tradition. Thanks a lot sir

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Lots to learn. Thanks for al this info on vedic measurement.

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I like this post and would like to follow your blog also. I have noticed a mistake above….

100 was Shatam (10 to the power of 10) that should be 10 to the power of 2 is it not?

I may need your assistance in developing my own blog which is solely a private one as of now.

Appreciate your reply

chandrasmenon2007@gmail.com

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You are right.I shall correct.Thanks.Regards

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