When one cross checks the Dynasties of India as explained in ancient Indian texts,, One is rewarded with a lot Information, that would clear the cobwebs surrounding Indian History.Contraray to what is being touted the relationship between the so called Dravididas and those from the Aryavartha was quite intimate and the Three Great Dynaties of Tamils, Chera, Chozha and Pandya descended from Ikshvaaku/Chandravamsa.I had written in detail about this in a c couple of articles, where I had proved, with evidence that the Chozhas descended from Ikshavaaku /Lunar Dynasty.
Tamils, who belong to Dravidian group, have one of the most ancient Languages of the world. Along with Sanskrit.The basis of Tamil literature is Tholkaapiyam,Grammar Book of Tamils.Tholkaapiyam is dated 3000 years traditionally.My eleven years of research shows that it is atleast 20,000 years old.Tholkaapiyam divides Tamil landmass into five entities.
- Kuriinji, Mountainous Region.
- Marutham,Arable Land.
- Mullai,Pastoral Land
- Neydhal, Seashore and
- Paalai, Desert Region
Each of these region is assigned a God.Kurinji,Murugan,Subrahmanya;Marutham,Indra;Mullai,Vishnu;Neydhal, Varuna and Paalai, Durga, Kotravai.
It is interesting to note that all the Gods mentioned in the Vedas are found in the above classification.Of special interest is Indra nd Varuna. These two devas are not given as much pride of place in Vedas in the sense that they are accorded the status of Regining deities for a specific Land.Varuna, in the Vedic Tradition is the God of water, while Indra is the chief of all devatas and God of Thunder.
.In the Tamil tradition ,Indra is elevated to the position of the God of Marutham landmass, Arabale land.It is a fact arable land needs copious water and Indra is the God of Thunder and Varuna God of Water.And Varuna obeys Indra..Tamils celebrated the Festival for Indra called Indra Vizha and this is one of the most Important festival of Tamils.This is to celebrate Indra, The Rain God and alomg with him,Krisahna was also celebrated as Krishna provided shelater to Govardhan people when Indra hit the land with Deluge when the Govardhan people did not perform Pooja for him.Krishna protected the people.This event was also celebrated in Tamil tradition.The details are found in earlies Tamil works of Sangam Age, inclding th Silappadikaaram One of the Five Epics of Tamils.This belongs to Tamil Sangam Era..Failure to Celebrate the Indra Vizha, Indra Festival, Tamil Literature recors,resulted in the Tamil Land being inundated by A Tsunami.Silappadikaaram mentions, so deos Manimekalai, another Epic of Tamils, mentions the Second Tamil Sangam was destroyed due to The Deluge.Tamils had three Sangams, Poets’ Conclave.Firt was at Then Madurai, the second at Kapaatapuram(Kavatam) and the third one at Madurai.Kapaatapuram was destroyed by a Tsunami.
There is also a view that Poompuhar,Kaverippommpattinam,the harbour of Chozhas was submerged because of failure to celebrate Indira festival.
Marudam region (area of the plains) Tamil agriculturists used to worship Indra as their Lord. Indra was considered as the god of the rains and since the farmers were dependent on rains for their crops, they used to worship Indra for rain, thunder and lightening.
There were many festivals celebrated in ancient India and references of them can be found in the ancient works like Vishnudhetrmottara Purana, and the Bhagavata Purana. This practice was prevalent in Tamil Nadu also. One such festival is known as `Indra Vizha`. The Chola kings whose port-city was Kaveripum-pattinam used to take the responsibility of this festival.
The detailed information on the celebration of `Indra Vizha` festival can be seen in the Tamil epics, the `Silappadikaram` and the `Manimekhalai`. As per the Manimekhalai, the famous sage Agastya helped the people of Kaveripumpattinam during a period of drought. He advised the Chola king Todittol Sembian to celebrate a festival for Indra to please him and then only Indra would bring rain to this city. According to the advice, the king arranged a big festival for the Lord Indra. In return, they got rain in the city and experienced the benefits of this, his successors also continued to celebrate this festival every year. This `Indra Vizha` festival generally continues for a period of twenty-eight days.
The festival usually commenced with a group beating drums and announcing to the people the start of the celebrations. The citizens of the town then cleaned the streets and roads and redecorate the city, with each house being adorned with many decorations. The officials of the kingdom would pay their respects to the king and wish him and the kingdom well. Musical performances would be held and the fire oblations offered in many temples for Siva, Vishnu and other deities. The festival ended with people bathing in the sea with the members of the family. It was generally believed that this festival was actually a prayer to Indra, and would remove the difficulties and dangers to those who celebrate it.’
‘The Sangam literature also records legends about mythical Chola kings.These myths speak of the Chola king Kantaman, a supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya, whose devotion brought the river Kaveri into existence. Two names are prominent among those Chola kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan. There are no sure means of settling the order of succession, of fixing their relations with one another and with many other princelings of around the same period.Urayur (now a part of Thiruchirapalli) was their oldest capital. Kaveripattinam also served as an early Chola capital. The Mahavamsa mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer, a Chola prince known as Elara, invaded the islandaround 235 BCE.
Citations and references.
Why this status for Indra?
I had stated that Chozhas trace their ancestry to Ikshvaaku Dynasty in the Copperplates evidence of Rajendra Chola at Thiruvaalangadu and Epigraphs in Kanyakumari.This refernece is found in almost all epigraphs and copperplates of Chozhas.Chozha Emperor Sibi was the (son of Usinara) Graet Great Grand son of Yayati, who founded the Chandra Vamsda ,Lunar Dynasty.Lunar Dynasty sprang upg up from Ikshavaaku,Solar Dynasty.Please refer my articles on these.
Mandhata ,aka Mandatri was an Ikshvakku ancestor of Rama.
Ushinara was given north-western side of India. Shibi was the son of King Ushinara and his descendants were Madras, Kekayas and Sauviras. He is the one who gave flesh for a hawk and an eagle.
- Shibi, Vara, Krmi, Dakshas were the sons of king Ushinara.
- Vrshadarha, Setuka, Madra and Kekaya were the sons of Shibi (Contemporary to Suryavanshi King Trishanku). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turvasu_Druhyu_and_Anu_Dynasties
Mandhata’s legend is cited in the Vana Parva, Drona Parva, and Shanti Parva of Mahabharata.
King Yuvanaswa of Ayodhya was childless. Once, he went on a hunting expedition and in the afternoon, he became wracked with thirst.
He came across the hermitage of sage but found no one. The king saw a pitcher of water and drank it. When sage came to know of this, he told the king that the water was meant for his wife so that she would conceive. Since the king drank it he became pregnant with his son.
One century later, the sages and saints arrived to help him give birth and slit open the left side of Yuvanaswa’s abdomen without causing pain and brought the baby boy. Indra, King of the Gods declared “He shall draw sustenance and dependence from me” or “Mandhata”. Indra provided milk from heaven to Manadhata. The milk began to accelerate the boy’s growth. Within twelve days, he resembled a twelve-year-old boy who was thirteen cubits tall. Mandhata spontaneously acquired the entire knowledge of the Vedas and military sciences. Mandhata acquired an impenetrable armor, a quiver with an inexhaustible supply of arrows and the Ajagava bow (originally belonging to Shiva) which fell from the sky. Mandhata ascended the throne.
‘Then Indra said to the king Muchukunda, “O king, we, the Devas are indebted to you for the help and protection which you have given us, by sacrificing your own family life. Here in the heaven, one second equals one year of the earth and you had fought with asuras for one year of heaven. Since, it has been a long time, there is no sign of your kingdom and family because it has been destroyed with the passage of time. We are happy and pleased with you, so ask for any boon except Moksha (liberation) because Moksha (liberation) is beyond our capacities”.
It is probable that as Muchukunda , Mandhata were very close to Indra, especially Mandhata being the Foster Son of Indra,Chozhas ,as a token of respect might have celebrated Indra Vizha in honor of Indra.And Mandhata,Sagara, Muchukunda …all are ancestors of Chozhas because Chozhas belong to Ikshvaku Dynasty.