The study of genes is very interesting.
I have written a few articles on this subject.
There have been attempts to manipulate data by assigning Caste to genes.
While we are advanced in Genetics, we are not advanced enough to assign a caste marker to Gene.
The information, rather the misinformation is provided by the Government of India.
They have taken distance as the factor to determine Caste!
That is if you are away from India, you do not have caste!
Apart from the fact we do not have the technology to assign caste to genes, people forget the Geology of 5000 ago.
India was not as it is.
The landmass encompassed a wider area.
Who set the boundaries for those areas?
Same logic applies to determine languages based on Genes.
Proof for this has o be found elsewhere, in archaeology, linguistics and cultural behavior.
Again, my researches indicate the presence of Indians as far away in Ireland, Russia and in some places Brahmin practices were found , according to Archaeological finds and cultural practices.
Now to the study.
‘R1a is typical in populations of Eastern Europe,Indian Subcontinent and parts of Central Asia. It has a significant presence in Northern Europe,Central Europe, Iran, Altaians and Xinjiang(China) as well as in Siberia. R1a can be found in low frequencies in the Middle East, mostly inIndo-European speakers or their descendants…
The Modern studies for R1a1 (M17) suggest that it could have originated in South Asia. It could have found its way initially from Western India (Gujarat) through Pakistan and Kashmir, then viaCentral Asia and Russia, before finally coming to Europe”…”as part of an archaeologically dated Paleolithic movement from east to west 30,000 years ago
Points and inferences from this study.
1.That Human genes originated in south Asia.
This is supported by archaeology,astronomy ,linguistics and culture.
2.’It could have found its way initially from Western India (Gujarat) through Pakistan and Kashmir, then viaCentral Asia and Russia, before finally coming to Europe”…”as part of an archaeologically dated Paleolithic movement from east to west 30,000 years ago’
Here the point is that the early Genes were linked to South India, to be specific near Madurai, Tamil Nadu.
The implication is that there has been a movement from the south necessitated by a Tsunami, which has been recorded in History and validated.
This has been found in Tamil Classics and world legends of Floods.
Note the time frame in another study.
‘The dates we report have significant implications for Indian history in the sense that they document a period of demographic and cultural change in which mixture between highly differentiated populations became pervasive before it eventually became uncommon. The period of around 1,900–4,200 years BP was a time of profound change in India, characterized by the deurbanization of the Indus civilization, increasing population density in the central and downstream portions of the Gangetic system, shifts in burial practices, and the likely first appearance of Indo-European languages and Vedic religion in the subcontinent. The shift from widespread mixture to strict endogamy that we document is mirrored in ancient Indian texts. [notes removed -Razib]’
Taking these facts into account, it is sane to theorize that the earliest genes were from the south of India and there was a shift to the north around 4000/5000 BC.
This is the time when the Tsunami struck in the south and people emigrated from the south.
Towards which direction is the question.
They could have moved towards the north of India, east and west.
Hindu Texts state that Satyavrata Manu, ancestor of Lord Rama moved towards north with his sons to found the Iksvaku Dynasty.
Please read my Post .
They could not have moved to wards the south as they were deep down the south as the land mass ended here as described in the Tamil Classics of the First Sangam and in Sanskrit texts.
Another direction they could have moved towards is the west
This is worth considering because of these facts.
a)There has been worship of Shiva and Murugan in deep south then but not much is known about Vishnu though mention is made of Mayon(Vishnu),in the earliest available Tamil text Tholkaapiyam.
b)Tamil Kings attended the Swayamvara of sita of Ramayana and even Nala and Dmayanti not not to forget the Swayamvara of Draupadi.
c)Tamil Kings participated in the Mahabharata battle.
d)Lord krishna and Arjuna visited Tamil Nadu then the Dravida Desa, married there and had children through Tamil princesses .
e)Balarama worshiped Lord Subrahmanya, called Murugan in Tamil, in South India.
f) Kapila who compiled the Purananuru, a Sangam Classic states that he was from Dwaraka.
g) Parashurama came from south and though he is considered an avatar of Vishnu he worshiped Shiva and received Pasupathasrara.
h)Arjuna received Pasupathastra in the south.
Now Satyavrata Manu moved to North.
Who had been left behind and who and where had Shiva, Ganesha and Murugan gone?
My research indicates that Shiva and Ganesha left through the middle east ,traveling through Europe, Africa, what is now called Americas, to Arctic and returned to India through the Khyber pass. leaving behind a trail of Sanatana Dharma .
Nothing else could account for the artifacts , language affinity and cultural heritage found throughout the area.
Their home-coming through the Khyber has been interpreted or misinterpreted as Aryan Invasion.
Thus the genes prove that the early humans were from the south , moved northwards and westwards.
They could have moved towards he east as well.
This is certain because of the spread of Santana Dharma in the far east, extending up to New Zealand and Australia.
Please check mu Pots on all these.
One of the advantages of not being a scholar is that I am not bound by one study.
I can study various studies, research papers and collate with Indian sources and arrive at a Theory.
If west can rely only on western sources, why not rely on western and Indian sources?
Excerpt ,Sources from different studies
The first group spread across the upper and middle reaches of the map, the Austro-Asiatics (the tribals or Adivasis) were clustered in the centre and east, the Dravidians covered the south as far up as Andhra Pradesh and the Tibeto-Burmans were confined to small border areas to the north.
“Now look at these. This stuff was very unexpected.” He pointed at the coloured circles on the map. “You will see that Indians are more similar than you would think across the country. There are membership exchanges within these four groups. It’s all mixing up, even with the Dravidians.”
Now I understood the circles: they showed genetic groups where you would least expect to find them. In Kashmir, there were people who were genetically similar to Dravidians. In Gujarat and eastern Orissa the same was true, though the markers were weaker. In parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka in the south of the country, the situation was reversed: here were Indo-Europeans. In Madhya Pradesh in central India, you could find groups whose ancestors had come from the Himalayas. So people who thought they were a product of a place where their family had lived for in infinite generations were genetically closer to Indians who lived a thousand miles away, and spoke a different language.
When I pointed to a spot on the map and asked Dr Mukhopadhyay exactly where it was, he hesitated. “We don’t say the place names. We agreed, because of the political risks, not to release the ID of the blood-sampled groups — Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs. This is uncomfortable territory.” He touched two red circles near Pakistan. “They probably would not eat in one another’s home. How deep are our genetic relationships, and yet how different are our social relationships. The cultural structures we are following are new: it takes time for practices like not marrying into another community to come out genetically. It takes a few thousand years.”
Tens of thousands of years?
“No, thousands of years.”
So with all this mixing and complexity, could you test for caste?
“There is no scientific basis to say you could have a caste gene. For a start, in our research we use samples of fifty or a hundred people, not individuals. If you test a population group in India and look at twelve genetic markers — DNA sequence variations — you have nearly a 100 per cent chance of knowing if they are tribals or not, and an 85 per cent chance of establishing their language group. The data would not tell you the caste, because there is no basis.( http://www.hindustantimes.com/books/a-brahmin–in-your-genes/article1-650873.aspx )
This would tell you the Russian, Arctic connection of Hindus.
‘I want to highlight one aspect which is not in the abstract: the closest population to the “Ancestral North Indians”, those who contributed the West Eurasian component to modern Indian ancestry, seem to be Georgians and other Caucasians. Since Reconstructing Indian Population History many have suspected this. I want to highlight in particular two genome bloggers, Dienekes and Zack Ajmal, who’ve prefigured that particular result. But wait, there’s more! The figure which I posted at the top illustrates that it looks like Indo-European speakers were subject to two waves of admixture, while Dravidian speakers were subject to one!