Which Calendar did people use before Julian Calendar?
There have been two methods.
One based on the movement of the Sun,Solar Calendar.
The other is based on the movement of the Moon,Lunar Calendar
The Solar Calendar is called Surya Maanasa and the Lunar,Chandra Manasa.
Both are in vogue in India.
There are some more caledars based on important events ,like King Vikramaditya’s reign.
While India has been traditionally following either the Solar or Lunar Calendars, in the West,there has been confusion galore.
In India,though two primary Calendars,Solar and Lunar, for religious purposes to fix the Nakshatra ,the Solar Calendar is followed because the Sun was recognised as a Star by ancient Hindus and for Thithi,which deals with the movement of the Moon is followed.
As mentioned at the beginning of this article, there is also a Vikrama Calendar,Vikrama Samvatsara.
The curious fact is that England, Wales and Scotland were following the Vikrama Samvatsara till 1752 when they changed it.
Yet another proof of India having once ruled England is the fact that until 1752 A.D. the English New Year began on March 25.
That is the exact time of the year when the Indian New Year begins.
In 1752 by an act of Parliament England arbitrarily changed over to January 1 as the New Year Day.
As March 25 marks the beginning of the Indian Vikram Samvat it is plausible that England was part of Vikramaditya’s Indian empire.
Please read my article Vikramaditya Date and His World Kingdom
Reference and citations.
Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Catholic countries.
This change was also implemented in Protestant and Orthodox countries some time later.
In England and Wales, Ireland, and the British colonies, the change of the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750.
From the 12th century to 1752, the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March (Lady Day) so for example the execution of Charles I was recorded at the time in Parliament as happening on 30 January 1648 (Old Style).
Vikram Samvat or Bikram Samvat is a calendar era used in a Hindu calendar.
It uses lunar months and solar sidereal year.
The new year begins with the first day after the new moon, in the month of Chaitra, Chaitra Shuddha 1 or Chaitra Shukla Paksha Prathama; which usually falls in March–April in the Gregorian calendar.
The Vikrama Samvat is said to have been founded by the legendary Indian king Vikramaditya, variously considered to be a partly historical figure or a purely mythical character.
According to the popular tradition, Vikramaditya started the Vikrama Samvat era in 57 BCE, after defeating the Shakas.
For this reason, those who believe him to be based on a distinct historical figure place him around the 1st century BCE.
However, this era is mentioned as “Vikrama Samvat” only after the 9th century CE.