As I keep writing on the antiquity of India and its advanced culture with the help of Archeology,World literature, Travelogues, Epigraphs,Temple inscriptions,Cave paintings, Astronomy, Tectonics, Glacier movements, Infrared dating,Strata verification and more tools from Oceanography,I am amazed at the dates I arrive for events detailed in Ancient Indian texts.
They defy the dates currently assigned to them,be it the date of the Vedas,Shiva,Puranas, Ramayana, Mahabharata,Tamil Sangam dates.
Despite mounting evidence,dates assigned to India and its Culture deliberately pushed after BC or if it is impossible,date them as close as possible to the Chronology of Christ,BC.
If it is difficult,deny the existing evidence by changing the age of Reference points!
Classic case is the date of Iron age in India.
As Western civilization could not stomach the ancient history of India,they dated Rig Veda to be around 5000 years old.
This date is erroneous as the description of Iron is found in the Rig Veda, world’s oldest literature,Puranas,Ramayana, Mahabharata and Tamil Sangam classics.
Ramayana is currently dated around 5114 .
I have provided evidence that it could be dated as back as by at least 50,000 years to a Million years!
Tamil port Poompuhar is dated around 16,000 years ago,by Archeology.
A million year old site dated around a million years belonging to Tamils is near Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.
And Silappadikaaram of the period is rich in literature.
It requires at least minimum five thousand years,even this is a very conservative estimate,for the richness of the language found in Silappadikaaram.
So Tamil could be dated at least by another five thousand years ago,that is by 21,000 years.
From another angle, Lemuria is about 230 Million years old and so is MU civilization.
So date of Ramayana and therefore the dates of the Vedas may be pushed back further.
Kindly read my Articles on each of these.
How to rebut these findings,is the problem faced by those who want to deny the history of India?
Deny the Iron Age in India.
Date it to just around 300 BC.
And change the definition of Iron Age!
‘The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration. It is defined by archaeological convention, and the mere presence of cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture; rather, the term “Iron Age” implies that the production of carbon steel has been perfected to the point where mass production of tools and weapons superior to their bronze equivalents become possible. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC. The technology soon spreads throughout the Mediterranean region and to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern and Central Europe is somewhat delayed, and Northern Europe is reached still later, by about 500 BC.
( https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age )
India’s Iron Age emerged in an era of transition known as the Vedic period (ca. 1,500-600 BCE). The Vedic period covers both the end of the Bronze Age following the collapse of the Harappan civilization around 1,400 CE and the start of the Iron Age. The Harappan civilization of the Indus River Valley had been complex and highly urbanized. The societies of the Vedic period were smaller, most only about the size of a village, recovering from the changes in the regional economy as well as drought, the likely culprit that collapsed India’s Bronze-Age stability.
This was a time of re-organization, but also religious growth. The Vedic period is named for the Vedas, foundational religious texts of Hinduism. The oldest, written in the ancient script of Vedic Sanskrit, was likely created between 1,500 and 1,200 BCE.’
But mass production of Steel,Iron was present in India.
Smeltering technology was known to India in those ancient times.
Microdrilling technology may be seen in Hindu temples,for example in Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu.
Iron evidence in Vedas,Ramayana, Mahabharata and Tamil texts and in archeological sites in India.
Yajur Veda Taittariyea Samhita 4.7.5 May I for me the stone, clay, hills, mountains, sand, trees, gold, bronze, lead ,tin, iron, copper, fire, water, roots, plants, what grows on ploughed land, what grows.Rig Veda 10.99.6 Lord of the dwelling, he subdued the demon who roared aloud, six-eyed and triple-headed. Trta, made stronger by the might he lent him, struck down the boar with shaft whose point was iron.Rig Veda 10.101.8 Prepare the cow-stall, for there drink your heroes: stitch ye the coats of armour, wide and many. Make iron forts, secure from all assailants let not your pitcher leak: stay it securely.Rig Veda 8.29.3 One brandishes in his hand an iron knife, firm, in his seat amid the DeitiesRig Veda 5.62.7 Adorned with gold, its columns are of iron. in heaven it glitters like a whip for horses; Or stablished on a field deep−spoiled and fruitful. So may we share the meath that loads your car−seat.Rig Veda 1.121.9 Thou hurledst forth from heaven the iron missile, brought by the Skilful, from the sling of leather, When thou, O Much-invoked, assisting Kutsa with endless deadly darts didst compass Susna.Rig Veda1.58.8 Grant, Son of Strength, thou rich in friends, a refuge without a flaw this day to us thy praisers. O Agni, Son of Strength, with forts of iron preserve thou from distress the man who lauds thee.Rig Veda 4.37.4 Strong, with fair chains of gold and jaws of iron, ye have a splendid car and wellfed horses. Ye Sons of Strength, ye progeny of Indra, to you the best is offered to delight you.Rig Veda 6.71.4 This Savitar the God, the golden−handed, Friend of the home, hath risen to meet the twilight. With cheeks of brass, with pleasant tongue, the Holy, he sends the worshipper rich gifts in plenty.Atharva Veda 10.1.20 Swords of good brass are in our house: we know how many joints thou hast, O spell! Be sure to rise, go away from hence! O stranger, what seekest thou here?Yajur Veda Taittareya Samhita 1.8.12 l Protect me in front, protect me at the side, protect me from behind; from the quarters protect me; from all deadly things protect me.
m Gold hued in the glowing of the dawns, Bronze pillared at the rising of the sun, O Varuna, O Mitra, mount your chariot seat, And thence behold ye Aditi and Diti.There are so many other refrences too.____________________________________Metals in ItihasasValmiki Ramayan Yuddha Kanda 6.113.20हिरण्यं वा सुवर्णं वा रत्नानि विविधानि च || राज्यं वा त्रिषु लोकेषु नैतदर्हति भाषितुम् |”Neither silver, nor gold nor even diamonds nor the sovereignty of the three worlds, can be worthy of this message.”Valmiki Ramayan Yuddha Kanda 6.65.18आददे निशितम् शूलं वेगाच्छत्रुनिबर्हणः |
सर्वकालायसम् दीप्तं तप्तकाञ्चनभूषणम् ||Kumbhakarna, the annihilator of enemies, speedily took up a sharp spike fully made of iron,adorned with pure gold and splendidly shining.Lord Krishnas Sudarshan Chakra also contained component of iron..The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva: Khandava-daha Parva: Section CCXXVII
And Pavaka then gave unto Krishna a discus with an iron pole attached to a hole in the centre.And it was a fiery weapon and became his favourite. Having obtained that weapon, Krishna also became equal to the task.Maces were mainly made by iron.The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Indralokagamana Parva: Section LI
And amongst them will move that great warrior Bhima of terrible prowess, armed with his iron mace held on high and capable of slaying every hero. And high above the din will be heard the twang of the Gandiva loud as the thunder of heaven.Arrows were mainly made by iron. But sometimes also made of steel, silver and copper.The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CLXXII
And battered and broken by the straight-coursing iron shafts, shot by me, the city of the Asuras, O king, fell to the earth. And they also, wounded by my iron arrows having the speed of the thunder, began, O monarch, to go about, being urged by destiny.The Mahabharata, Book 4: Virata Parva: Go-harana Parva: Section LXII
And loud was the clatter made by Arjuna’s shafts as they cleft the coats of mail belonging to mighty warriors, made of steel, silver, and copper. And the field was soon covered with the corpses of warriors mounted on elephants and horses, all mangled by the shafts of Partha of great impetuosity like unto sighing snakes.Wheels of chariots were made up of iron:The Mahabharata, Book 1: Adi Parva: Viduragamana Parva: Section CCIX
There were also large iron wheels planted on them. And with all these was that foremost of cities adorned. The streets were all wide and laid out excellently; and there was no fear in them of accident. And decked with innumerable mansions, the city became like unto Amaravati and came to be called Indraprastha (like unto Indra’s city).
Smritis mention frequent use of metals. Some of examples are:
SB 3.17.26. Moving about in the ocean for many, many years, the mighty Hiranyaksa smote the gigantic wind-tossed waves again and again with his iron maceand reached Vibhavari, the capital of Varuna.
SB10.41.20The Lord saw Mathura, with its tall gates and household entrances made of crystal, its immense archways and main doors of gold, its granaries and other storehouses of copper and brass, and its impregnable moats. Beautifying the city were pleasant gardens and parks. The main intersections were fashioned of gold, and there were mansions with private pleasure gardens, along with guildhalls and many other buildings.
Shiva Purana mentions Vishwakarma preparing Shiva Linga of Various metals.
Shiva Purana 2.14
All the deities, then prayed to lord Shiva, who after becoming pleased instructed ‘Vishwakarma’ to construct a Shivalinga for them. Vishwakarma then made a Shivalinga for Kuber, a Shivalinga of yellow diamond for Dharmaraj, a Shivalinga of dark coloured diamond for Varun, a Shivalinga of Indraned diamond for Vishnu and a goldden Shivalinga for Brahmaji. Similarly Vishwadeva was given a Shivalinga made up of silver, the Ashwini Kumars were given Shivalinga made up of bronze, Laxmi was given a Shivalinga made up of Crystal (Sphatik), Sun-god was given a Shivalinga made of copper and the moon was given a Shivalinga made of pearl.
If people can not stomach evidence,change the date of Indian text!
Sample.’ The word Iron cannot be existed before iron age. So it means those verses were written after iron age – user9554′
You can find the thread in the stackexchange link above.
Archaeological evidence in the image below.
Details of Iron Age,India
The author of this paper mentions about iron smelting , later in the Gandhara area nearby . Biswas [1995 ] has identified three main areas where iron is known to be smelted since the ancient times. These areas are :
( 1 ) Atranjikhera ( Fig. 15 ) near Delhi or Aligarh ( Uttar Pradesh ) ,
( 2 ) Singhbhum – Raipur areas where Asuras and Gond tribals live , and
( 3 ) Karnataka and Tamilnadu areas where one can see places like Paiyampalli ( again Neolithic- Megalithic ),which is in the Arcot district of Tamilnadu, where iron was smelted .
It is believed that the expansion of the Magadha Empire was due to the source of iron nearby ( Baraaber Hills near Gaya – refer to Fig. 4 [ Wolpert ,1993]).
The Asuras of Netarhat belong to the group of the tribals of Central India where to-day , most of the Steel Plants ( roughly 90 % and above of steel production of India ) takes place. The Steel Plants are located at Bhilai near Raipur, Rourkela in Orrisa, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, and Burnpur. The ore for the plant at Durgapur ( West Bengal ) possibly is also obtained from this area only .
Source and image of Smeltering in India, https://www.engr.mun.ca/~asharan/bihar/ironage/IRONAGEINDIA2.htm
You will find the research paper at the above Link.
This extensive urn burial site was first excavated in 1876. Later Alexander Rea, an Englishman and Superintending Archaeologist, excavated the urn-burial site between 1889 and 1905. He excavated a good number of urns and Rea discovered about 1,872 objects including gold diadems (with parallels from Mycenae), bronze objects notably lids with exquisite finials depicting many animal forms,iron objects besides thousands of potsherds. After hundred years the excavation was also resumed during 2003-04 and 2004-05. They found 185 burial urns, including 100 fully intact urns, and 36 with complete human skeletons inside, unearthed at a depth of two to three meters in various (six 10m x 10m trenches) trenches within the area of 600 square meters. Along with the skeletons, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and neolithic Celts, red ware, black ware, copper bangles and earrings, iron spearheads, daggers, and swords have been found. Three of these urns contain writing resembling the early Tamil Brahmi script. ‘
And there was no copper,bronze ages as presumed because all of them are found in simultaneously.
- A History of ancient and early medieval India from stone age to the 12th century. Upinder Singh. 2009 p.425 http://books.google.co.in/books?id=GW5Gx0HSXKUC&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=sangam+age+megaliths&source=bl&ots=QfSdEsT1Ga&sig=nfJPw5uzJf8bJn1OEBFdU52LCcY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=NjWwUtziBoX8rAePiYDQDA&ved=0CCoQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=sangam%20age%20megaliths&f=false
- Champakalakshmi.R, ‘Archaeology and Tamil literary tradition. Puratattva. 8 : 1 10-22. 1996
- Cromlech. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cromlech
- Dolmens, Hero Stones and the Dravidian People. Nagaswamy.R. http://tamilnation.co/heritage/dolmens.htm
- Dolmen. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolmen
- Fifth ‘hero’ stone with Tamil Brahmi inscriptions found Indian Express. 31st July 2012 http://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/chennai/article579686.ece
- History of Tamil Nau. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Tamil_Nadu
- Iron Age burial site found near Tiruvannamalai. Subramaniyan, TS. The Hindu June 26, 2011. http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/history-and-culture/iron-age-burial-site-found-near-tiruvannamalai/article2135078.ece
- More pre-historic burial sites found in Tirunelveli district The Hindu March 9, 2010. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/more-prehistoric-burial-sites-found-in-tirunelveli-district/article221358.ece