I have been searching for some information relating to mathematics and I came across Bakshali manuscript . It is in Sanskrit and dated at AD 224–383/ 885–993 (proposed carbon-dates, recently disputed on methodological grounds: Plofker et al.) It’s script is Sharada and is said to have been in vogue in what is now Kashmir.I was curious because one finds advanced mathematics and scientific concepts in ancient Sanskrit literature, including the Eighteen Puran and Ithihasas, not to speak of Vedas. One finds advanced mathematics concepts in Chamaka of Sri Rudra. Maths DNA Mitochondrial Base Pairs In Chamakam Rudram Obviously, an attempt to bypass Indian history is at work.I pursued my search. I found references first to Greeks,Romans then to Sumeria and Mesapotamia.

The earliest mathematical texts available are from Mesopotamia and Egypt – *Plimpton 322* (Babylonian c. 2000 – 1900 BC), the *Rhind Mathematical Papyrus* (Egyptian c. 1800 BC) and the *Moscow Mathematical Papyrus* (Egyptian c. 1890 BC). All of these texts mention the so-called Pythagorean triples, so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.

## Babylonian.

Babylonian mathematics refers to any mathematics of the peoples of Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from the days of the early Sumerians through the Hellenistic period almost to the dawn of Christianity. The majority of Babylonian mathematical work comes from two widely separated periods: The first few hundred years of the second millennium BC (Old Babylonian period), and the last few centuries of the first millennium BC (Seleucid period). It is named Babylonian mathematics due to the central role of Babylon as a place of study. Later under the Arab Empire, Mesopotamia, especially Baghdad, once again became an important center of study for Islamic mathematics.

## Egypt

The most extensive Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind papyrus (sometimes also called the Ahmes Papyrus after its author), dated to c. 1650 BC but likely a copy of an older document from the Middle Kingdom of about 2000–1800 BC.

Source. History of Mathematics

## Bakshali Manuscript

The manuscript is a compendium of rules and illustrative examples. Each example is stated as a problem, the solution is described, and it is verified that the problem has been solved. The sample problems are in verse and the commentary is in prose associated with calculations. The problems involve arithmetic, algebra and geometry, including mensuration. The topics covered include fractions, square roots, arithmetic and geometric progressions, solutions of simple equations, simultaneous linear equations, quadratic equations and indeterminate equations of the second degree……The manuscript is written in an earlier form of Śāradā script, a script which is known for having been in use mainly from the 8th to the 12th century in the northwestern part of South Asia, such as Kashmir and neighbouring regions. The language of the manuscript,[a] though intended to be Sanskrit, was significantly influenced in its phonetics and morphology by a local dialect or dialects, and some of the resultant linguistic peculiarities of the text are shared with Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. The overlying dialects, though sharing affinities with Apabhraṃśa and with Old Kashmiri, have not been identified precisely. It is probable that most of the rules and examples had been originally composed in Sanskrit,

Wikipedia on Bakshali Manuscript

Clever at obfuscation and misleading. At one stroke mathematics of India is relegated to Third century to 9 Century AD The people who have started this canard with high sounding research names and authors do not seem to be aware of what a common man knows in India knows. That is the Structure of Temples in India. You find Temples of India, especially in South India,being not only a place of worship but architectural marvels. Not only that; we have temples where the Sun’s rays fall at a spot on a fixed time, date; temple where one finds inverted image as in a pinhole camera; intricately carved sculptures which could not have been possible without technology. Without going into all these, simple fact is that one of the best example of Chozha architecture is Thanjavur Big Temple, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu, India.And this was built by Rajaraja Chozha during 1064 – 1084. The construction of the temple,where Eighty Ton monolith stone is kept atop the temple; the fact that the temple tower’s shadow falls only within its base; it’s intricate carvings would not have been possible without highly advanced mathematics.

So, I delved deep into Sanskrit and Texts. I find references to Vedic mathematics by Kathyayana and Bodhayana; then to Aryabhatta and Varahamihira. Then in Chamaka of Sri Rudram.

I thought it fit to check on the Tamil texts first before getting into Sanskrit because I had already written some articles on Mathematics in Sanskrit ,like the one on Fibanocchi Numbers,Value Of Pi To 31 Decimal Places In Krishna Stuthi.

Binomial Triangle Computer Binary System By Pingala

I shall explore further about mathematics in Tamil texts.

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