Time is a very difficult topic ,so is Space.
No clear definition of Time has been set as of Date.
The interchange of the Terms Space and Time is a challenge to the known laws of Physics.
When you observe the Black Holes where time stops and runs backwards ;
when you notice the movement of extra particles in the sub atomic ranges as in Bosun experiment;
when you have Time Warp proved by Quantum Theory and Mechanics;
when you find the that the receiving by the earth the light from the Star does not prove its existence, rather that it did exist depending on the time taken by the light to reach the earth,
you are astounded and you are forced to reexamine your known Theories of Physics.
Well Indian Philosophy was aware of this fact and it has observed that the .OBSERVER HAS AN IMPORTANT ROLE AS THE OBSERVED, FOR TO OBSERVE SOMETHING THAT TRAVELS AT A VELOCITY THAN THAT OF LiGHT, THE OBSERVER NEEDS TO MOVE INTO THAT PLANE OR the results will not be correct.
Instead of looking at the Universe from the outside Indian Philosophy looks at the instrument that perceives these phenomena;one such instrument is the Mind, which also has the elements that make up the Universe..
Mind is treated as on sense organ(for details please read my blogs on Hinduism).
Now let us look into the concept of Time.
Different perspective of Time.
Changing views of Space and Time along the world line of a rapidly changing Observer.
In this animation, the vertical direction indicates time and the horizontal direction indicates distance, the dashed line is the spacetime trajectory (“world line”) of an accelerating observer. The small dots are arbitrary events in spacetime that are stationary relative to each other. The events passing the two diagonal lines in the lower half of the picture (the past light cone of the observer) are those that are visible to the observer.
The slope of the world line (deviation from being vertical) gives the relative velocity to the observer. Note how the view of spacetime changes when the observer accelerates. In particular, absolute time is a concept not applicable in Lorentz’s spacetime: events move up-and-down in the figure depending on the acceleration of the observer.
Indian Philosophy recognizes the limitations of human mind and abilities. It knows that one is restricted by space and time, which does not afford him the luxury of understanding things as they are. Any perception or understanding is conditioned by the twin spectacles of Space and Time (Immanuel Kant in Critique of Pure Reason.)
To understand things as they are is beyond human ability. Let us say that we want to know whether there are any particles that travel at a higher velocity than light. (It has been proved theoretically that they exist).If we want to prove them by direct experience rather than inference, we need to be in motion in tune with the particle traveling faster than the velocity of light (Einstein circumvented this problem by theorizing that if an object were to travel at a higher velocity than that of light, it would no longer remain matter. (Theory of Relativity.)
Imagine, we travel at a higher velocity than the velocity of light, not withstanding the fact that we may no longer remain as matter, what happens?
We may be able to observe the particle traveling at a higher velocity than light. But, in the process of observing this phenomenon, we no longer remain in our normal original state. That is to say we have changed our plane of existence to that of the object traveling at a higher velocity.
This means to understand, in the realms of Higher Physics, if one needs to observe things of a different coordinates, one needs to move to the same level of existence.
That is to say our existence coordinates or parameters vary. This leads to different level of Time as this involves motion at a higher velocity than the one we are in. This admits the differentiation of time, determined by two factors-the point from which one observes and the point at which the observable exists. In short to understand higher velocities one needs to be at the same velocity to observe in real-time.