I am providing some essential information on the Vedas, The Sacred Text of the Hindus.
Vedas are transmitted by word of mouth and it is ordained that The Vedas must be learned by “Listening’
Though Five thousand years have passed , the intonation across the length and breadth of India or wherever the Vedas are recited, there is no difference in the Text or intonation.
If there is a variation, as it does in some texts, recitation, it has been grouped and one who knows the Vedas follows only what is ordained for him .
The Vedas are four in Number.
Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva.
Yajur has Sukla Yajur and Krishna Yajur.
The Vedas were compiled, not composed by Ved Vyas.
The term Vyas means ‘Compiler’.
He gave it to his four disciples,
Rig Veda to Pailar,
Yajur Veda to Vysampayana,
Sama to Jaimini and
Atharva to Sumanthu.
( Sage Yagnavalkya compiled the Sukla Yajur after having learnt it directly from Surya , the Sun God, for more on this read my post Sukla Yajur)
The disciples of these four transmitted the Vedas through their disciples and this practice continues even to-day.
There are 1181 Sakais(Divisons)
Rig Veda has 21,
Sama 1000 and
* 50 Saakais are not accounted for here.There is another information which differs as to the number, see the Link.
Out of this only Nine are available and are being practiced now.
Saakala Saakai-Rig veda,1
Sukla Yajur, Kaanvam and Madhyandhinam-2
Krishna Yajur Taittriyam and Maitrayaneeyam-2
Sama Veda, Gauthama,Raanayaneeyam,Jaimini 3,
Atharva Veda Saunakam and Paippalaatham 2
Sayanachariar had written the Commentary, Bhashyam for all the Vedas.
Rig Veda belongs to Hotha Gana,
Sama Veda Uthkaathru,
Atharva, Santhika and Paushtika and in Yagas relate to Brahma.
Each Veda has,
Samhitas, Hymns addressed to Devatas and Mantras,
Brahmanas,explain the duties relating to daily ife and performance of Yagas and Yagnas,
Aranyakas, continuation of the Brahmanas and
Upanishads deal with the knowlege of Reality, Brahman
Rig Veda Brahmanas- Aithreyam,Kausheetaki:; Aithearanyakam and Aithreyopanishad, Kaushakyaaranyakam and Kayshathheylupanishad,
Taittriya Brahmana,Taittriya Aranyaka,Taittriya,Svetasvara, Katha, and Maithryani Upanishads.-Krishna Yajur.
Sathapatha Brahmana , Bruhatharanyaka and Isavasya Upanishads-Sukla Yajur.
Sama Veda, Aranyakeya Ganam,Chandokya UpanishadSama Vidhan Brahmanam,Devathaathyaya Vamsam.samhithoupanishad Brahmanam,Thalavakaara/Jaimini Brahmanam,Panchavimsa Brahmanam,Arshveya Brahmanm
Gopatha Brahmanam,Prasna, Mundaka,Mandukya,Jaabala,Nadhabindu,Kaivaya andNrusimhathaapini Upanishads.
More to follow on Veda Sutras.
Slightly different information at,